The German Shorthaired Pointer (GSP) is a breed of dog developed in the 1800s in Germany for hunting.
The breed is streamlined yet powerful with strong hindquarters that make it able to move rapidly and turn quickly. It has moderately long flop ears set high on the head. Its muzzle is long, broad, and strong, allowing it to retrieve even heavy game. The dog's profile should be straight or strongly Roman nosed; any dished appearance to the profile is incorrect. The eyes are generally brown, with darker eyes being desirable; yellow or "bird of prey" eyes are a fault. The tail is commonly docked, although this is now prohibited in some countries. The correct location for docking for GSP is after the caudal vertebrae start to curl, leaving enough tail to let the dog communicate through tail wagging and movement. The docked tail should not be too long or too short but should balance the appearance of the head and body. The GSP tail is carried at a jaunty angle, not curled under. When the GSP is in classic point stance, the tail should be held straight out from the body forming a line with the pointing head and body. Like all German pointers, GSP have webbed feet.
When it comes to everyday family life, the pointer is a recommended addition to the family. They are extremely loyal, friendly and fun. They tend to also be careful and protective of young children.
The German Shorthaired Pointer needs plenty of vigorous activity. This need for exercise (preferably off lead) coupled with the breed's natural instinct to hunt, means that training is an absolute necessity. The GSP distinctly independent character and superior intelligence mean that any unused energy will likely result in the dog amusing itself, most probably in an undesirable manner.
Lack of sufficient exercise and/or proper training can produce a German Shorthaired Pointer that appears hyperactive or that has destructive tendencies. Thus the breed is not a suitable pet for an inactive home or for inexperienced dog owners. Although these dogs form very strong attachments with their owners, a dog that receives insufficient exercise may feel compelled to exercise himself. These dogs can escape from four foot and sometimes six foot enclosures with little difficulty. Regular hunting, running, carting, bikejoring, skijoring, mushing,dog scootering or other vigorous activity can alleviate this desire to escape. The natural instinct to hunt may result in the dog hunting alone and sometimes bringing home occasional dead trophies, such as cats, rats, pigeons and other urban animals. In addition to exercise, especially formal hunting, the GSP needs to be taught to distinguish legitimate prey and off limits animals.
Like the other German Pointers (the German Wire-haired Pointer and the less well known German Longhaired Pointer), the GSP can perform virtually all gundog roles. It is pointer and retriever, an upland bird dog and water dog. The GSP can be used for hunting larger and more dangerous game, and in addition has a scent hound's talented nose. It is an excellent swimmer but also works well in rough terrain. It is tenacious, tireless, hardy, and reliable. In short, it is a superb all-around field dog that remains popular with hunters of many nationalities.
The GSP is very good with learning commands and, it is usually very capable of figuring out how to solve problems by themselves. Along with its superb hunting ability and companionable personality, the superior intelligence and biddability (trainability) of the GSP make it one of the more popular large breeds.
During hunting sessions, a completely instinctive scent-hiding activity through rubbing against carrion can be observed.
Unexplained swelling and growth of the nipples in adult males is considered normal in this breed and is fairly common. However, if the nipples become sensitive to the touch, a veterinarian should be consulted. Occasionally a biopsy will be recommended. Bleeding from the nipples may suggest infection or cancer. Female GSP in some lines are prone to breast cancer.
As with any other hunting dog, contact with game can cause the spread of fungi and bacteria that can easily colonise in the gums or cause infections on open wounds and small cuts from scratching against plants and bushes during a regular hunting session.
The short GSP coat needs very little grooming, just occasional brushing. The dog should be bathed only when needed.
Like all dogs with flop ears, GSP can be prone to ear infections and their ears require regular checking and cleaning.
The GSP has a longer life expectancy than many breeds of this size, commonly living 12 to 14 years, with individual dogs living to 16 to 18 years not uncommon.
As the GSP is a large, active breed, the dogs can require considerable food; however, they can also become obese if fed too much for individual activity levels. A healthy weight should permit the last two ribs to be felt under the coat and the dog should have a distinct waist or "tuck-up".
Due to the short GSP coat, body heat management is not generally a problem. However, the GSP's high levels of activity require the breed to drink considerable amounts of water to prevent dehydration. Early symptoms of dehydration show itself as thick saliva and urine with an excessively strong and distinct smell.